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Disaster Texas City

Vessels

The new re Grandcamp was a 437-meter-long (133 m) of the Liberty ship. First SS named Benjamin R. Curtis in Los Angeles in 1942, the ship served in the Pacific theater and was inactive at Philadelphia after World War II. In a gesture of the Cold War the ship was assigned to the line in French to help rebuild Europe. With the load of ammonium nitrate widespread in the starfish had high small arms ammunition, machinery, and on the cover of sisal balls. The SS High Flyer was another ship in the port, about 600 feet (200 m) of the SS Grandcamp. Extras High Flyer 961 tonnes of ammonium nitrate and £ 3.6 million (1,800 tons) of sulfur. Ammonium nitrate in both vessels and adjacent warehouse was fertilizer on their way to European farmers. The Grandcamp had arrived from Houston, Texas, where the authority port did not allow the loading of ammonium nitrate.

Explosions

32.5% of ammonia nitrate, used as fertilizer and high explosive, was manufactured in Nebraska and Iowa and sent to Texas City by rail before being loaded into the Grandcamp.

It was manufactured in a patented process of explosives, mixed with clay, petrolatum, rosin and paraffin to avoid moisture caking. It was also packed in paper bags, then transported and stored at temperatures that increasing its chemical activity. Dockers reported the bags are hot to the touch before loading.

Around 8:10, the smoke was in the hold of the Grandcamp. Attempts to control not as a red glow returned after each effort.

Shortly before 9:00 am, Captain ordered his men to hold the steam, a method of fire where the steam is sent to extinguish the fire in hopes to hold a charge. Meanwhile, the fire had attracted a crowd of spectators along the coast, which is believed to have been at a safe distance. Spectators said the water around the ship was already boiling water, an indication of uncontrolled chemical reactions. The cargo deck and began to excel as the increase forces inside.

At 9:12, ammonium nitrate has reached a threshold ship explosives and blew up, causing destruction and damage around the port. The blast sent a huge 15-foot (4.5 m) wave was detected on nearly 100 miles (160 km) off the coast of Texas. The explosion leveled about 1,000 buildings on the land. The explosion destroyed the factory Grandcamp Monsanto Chemical Company and led to inflammation of refineries and chemical storage products in the walk. The balls of fire falling from the wire was added to injury, while that the anchor was released Grandcamp throughout the city. aircraft flying nearby had their wings cut off by forcing them out of the sky. Ten miles there, the people of Galveston was forced to kneel down, windows were shattered in Houston, Texas, 40 miles (60 km). People felt the shock of 250 miles (400 km) in Louisiana. The blast blew out nearly 6,350 tons of steel vessel in air, at a certain supersonic speed. Official estimates of casualties totaled 567, but most victims were burned or literally ashes stolen splinters, and the official total is considered an understatement. The volunteer fire department of every city in Texas has been killed in the explosion initial responders and the rage of fire, first from other regions were initially unable to reach the disaster site.

The first explosion on the load of ammonium nitrate in the High Flyer. Crews spent hours trying to cut the High Flyer free from its anchorage and other barriers, but without success. After the smoke had been emptied of its field for over five hours and fifteen hours after the explosion aboard the Grandcamp the High Flyer flew the demolition of the fence SS B. Wilson Keene, killing at least two people and increased damage to the port and other ships over grape and fire.

Magnitude of the disaster

One of the anchors Grandcamp in Texas City Memorial Park

The Texas City disaster is generally considered the worst industrial accident in U.S. history. Witnessing the scene from images rather recent Air Raid of 1943 and the devastation Bari more Nagasaki. The official death toll was 581. Deaths, 405 were identified and 63 have not been identified. These 63 were placed in a memorial cemetery in the northern part of Texas City, near Moses Lake. A further 113 people were classified as missing, none of the elements were never identified. This figure includes firefighters were aboard Grandcamp when it exploded. There is some speculation that there may be Hundreds more were killed, but do not count, like sailors on a visit, non-census workers and their families, and countless travelers. However, there were survivors as close as 70 feet (21 m) on the bench. The victims' bodies quickly filled the local morgue, and several have been created in the gymnasium of the local high school to identify their loved ones.

More than 5,000 people were injured, with 1,784 admitted to twenty hospitals in the region. Over 500 houses were destroyed and hundreds damaged, leaving 2,000 people homeless. The port was destroyed and many businesses were destroyed or burned. Over 1,100 vehicles were damaged and 362 cars were damaged obliteratedhe was estimated at 100 million.

About 2 tons of Grandcamp anchor was released 1.62 miles (2.61 km) and lies in a crater 10 feet (3 m). now rests in a memorial park. Other major 5-ton anchor launched 1 / 2 mile (800 m) the entrance of the Texas City dike, and is supported by a Texas-shaped monument at the entrance. Burning debris ignited everything within miles, including Dozens of oil storage tanks and chemical tanks. The nearby city of Galveston, Texas, was covered with an oil mist which has left deposits in all surfaces exposed to air.

Victims fight against fire

Memorial Firefighters

Some of the deaths and damage in the city because of the destruction and subsequent fire of several chemical plants (including Monsanto and Union Carbide), oil storage and other facilities near the Texas explosion. Twenty-seven of the twenty-eight members of the Fire Department Volunteers Texas City and three members of the Texas City refinery Heights Volunteer Fire Department died after attempting to extinguish the fire board the ship for the first time in what was one of the worst tragedies of the 20th century firemen. More firefighters died at one point had ever died in previous fire in the country. [Citation needed] A firefighter Fred Dowdy, who had not responded to the initial call, fire coordinated other communities of up to 60 miles (100 km). Two hundred firefighters finally arrived from as far away as Los Angeles. Fires caused by events cataclysmic still burning a week after the disaster, and the body recovery process took almost a month. Four Texas City Fire engines were twisted shells and burned.

A positive outcome of the Texas City disaster was the widespread disaster response planning for help organize the plant, local, regional and responses to emergencies.

Reactions and Reconstruction

The disaster has drawn national media attention. Help bids from around the country. Several funds have been set up to process donations, particularly Relief Fund for the City of Texas, established by Mayor Curtis Trahan. One of the biggest fundraising efforts for the city and the victims of the disaster was Organized by Sam Maceo, one of two brothers who ran the crime that was held in Galveston at the time. Maceo has organized a benefit large on the island with some of the most famous artists of the time as Phil Harris, Frank Sinatra, and Ann Sheridan. Ultimately, Texas City Relief Fund has raised over $ 1,000,000 ($ 10.1 million in current terms). Payments for insurance claims totaled fires nearly 4 million (37.7 million dollars in today's terms).

A few days after the disaster, large companies that had lost the premises of the explosion has announced plans to rebuild in Texas City, and even expand their operations. Some companies are implementing policy to keep all the hourly workers who had worked in the destroyed facilities with intent to use in reconstruction. In all expenses for the reconstruction industry is estimated to have been about 100 million (U.S. $ 954 million in current terms).

Legal cases

Hundreds of complaints have been filed in the wake of the disaster. Many of them were combined Dalehite in Elizabeth, et al. c. United States, under the recently adopted Federal Tort Claims Act (Federal Law). The April 13, 1950, the court District of the United States responsible for a long list of negligent acts of omission and commission by 168 organizations listed and their representatives in manufacturing, packaging and labeling of ammonium nitrate, compounded by errors in the transport, storage, fire prevention loading, and fire suppression, which led to explosions and the ensuing massacres. June 10, 1952, the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed this decision given the United States maintained the right to exercise their "discretion" in the national critical issues. The Supreme Court upheld this decision (346 USA 15 June 8, 1953), in a 4-3 decision, noting that the district court lacked jurisdiction under federal law to find the United States government responsible for "negligent planning decisions, which have been validly delegated to different departments and agencies. In summary, the FTCA clearly exempts "failure to exercise a discretionary function or duty, and the court concluded that all allegations in this case are discretionary.

In a stinging dissent, three judges ruled that under federal law, "Congress defined the role of government as similar to a private person ", ie, in the exercise of functions outside the government. In this case, "a policy adopted in the exercise of discretion is not immune held responsible for the care for details" and as a private person would certainly be held responsible for such acts. It is also noted that a private person remains at a higher level care when performing "inherently dangerous" acts as the transport and storage of explosives.

According to Melvin Belli in her book ready for the plaintiff! (1956), Congress acted to provide some compensation after the court refused to do so. Dalehite decision was finally "Called" in Congress, where the reduction was granted by private law (Public Law 378, 69 Stat. 707 (1955)). When the last request was tried in 1957, 1,394 grants totaling nearly $ 17,000,000 was made.

See also

Houston portal

disasters ammonium nitrate

Halifax Explosion

Notes

Ab ^ Texas City, Texas Disaster

^ Stephens (1997), p.100.

^ "Fireworks, explosives and fireworks." Greg Goebel / Advameg Inc.. Http: / / www.faqs.org / docs / air / ttpyro.html.

^ No. 1138: The Texas City disaster

^ Today in History: explosion kills 581 fertilizer Texas

Stephens Abcd ^ (1997), p. 104105.

^ McComb, David G. (2000). Galveston: a history and guide. Austin: University Press of Texas. p. 176. ISBN 0292720491. http://books.google.com/books?id=mecTAAAAYAAJ.

Minutaglio, Bill (2003). City on Fire: The explosion that devastated a town in Texas Start a historic legal battle. Harper. p. 201. ISBN 978-0060959913. http://books.google.com/books?id=gO127UoMcmQC.

^ Belli (1965), p. 8385

References

Belli, Melvin (1965). Ready for the plaintiff!. Public library. http://books.google.com/books?id=xccJQAAACAAJ.

Minutaglio, Bill (2003). City on Fire. Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-018541-4.

Stephens, Hugh W. (1997). The Texas City Disaster, 1947. Austin TX: University Press of Texas. http://books.google.com/books?id=GCK4l6YaiwcC.

Texas City, Texas, disaster, April 16, 1917, 1947. Fire Prevention and Engineering Bureau, Dallas Texas, the national fire insurance. 1947. http://www.local1259iaff.org/report.htm.

Coordinates: 292239 945329 / 94.89139W 29.3775N / 29.3775, -94.89139

External Links

1947 in Texas City Disaster Proof Web Public Library in Texas Moore Memorial City

Title, New York Times, April 17, 1947, explosions and fires Wreck of Texas City of 15,000, 300 and 1,200 dead, thousands Hurt, homeless; Coastal zone width Rocked, damage in millions

Texas City Disaster, 1947 photographs of the Moore Memorial Public Library, organized by History Portal of Texas

Handbook of Texas entry

The explosion 50 years later, still remembers the City of Texas

Details and photos of local destruction

Opinion Dalehite Supreme Court against the United States, 1953

U.S. Coast Guard Report

Fire Prevention joint Council and Engineering Council of Texas and the National Fire Underwriters

EV

Galveston Bay Area

History

Large cities

Pasadena Baytown

Other cities

Anahuac, Beach City, Clear Lake Shores Deer Park Dickinson El Lago Friendswood Seabrook Kemah La Marque City Point Gate League of Nassau Bay Morgan Taylor Webster City SHOREACRES Lake Village Texas

And non-CDP

Municipalities

Clear Lake City Bacliff Bayview (part of Houston / Pasadena) Double Point Bayou St. Leon Smith

Counties

Harris Chambers Galveston

Subregions

Pasadena / Baytown, Texas Clear Lake City / La Marque Chambers County

Organs

water

Armand Bayou Cedar Bayou Clear Creek Clear Lake, Dickinson Bay, Galveston Bay Taylor Lake Moses Lake Anahuac San Jacinto River Trinity Lake Trinity Bay

Main ports

Barbours Cut Bayport Texas City

Nature

preserves

National Wildlife Refuge Armand Bayou Nature Center Anahuac Baytown Nature Center in Texas City Pine Prairie Creek Park Reserve

V

Landaytown Houstonugar

Metropolitan Area

Counties

Austin Brazoria Chambers Fort Bend Galveston Harris Liberty Montgomery Waller San Jacinto

"Principal" cities

Houston Sugar Land Baytown Conroe Galveston

Other Cities

Alvin Angleton Bellaire Deer Park Dickinson Freeport Friendswood Clute Galena Park Jacinto City Katy La Marque Lake Jackson humble Porte League City Missouri City Pasadena Pearland Richmond Rosenberg South Houston Stafford, Texas City West University Place

For a complete list, see List of cities and towns in Houstonugar Landaytown MSA

Unincorporated areas

Channelview Crosby Cypress Fresno Atascocita Cloverleaf spring Hockley Port Bolivar Klein The Woodlands

Plans water

Buffalo Bayou Galveston Bay Gulf Intracoastal Waterway shipping channel in Houston at San Jacinto River Trinity Lake Conroe Houston

EV

Texas history

In times of

Spanish Texas French Texas Mexican Texas Republic of Texas, Texas, in the State of Texas Civil War

By Topic

Indian wars of annexation during the oil boom in Jewish history of slavery in the Texas Rangers Revolution

In town

Amarillo Austin Brownsville Corpus Christi Dallas, El Paso, Fort Worth, Houston, Galveston, Lubbock, Laredo, San Antonio

Categories: Accidental explosion disasters in the United States | 1947 disasters | 1947 in the United States | Disasters in Texas | Fires in Texas | Law of negligence | Categories century explosionsHidden 20: Articles that may contain original research since September 2007 | All articles that may contain original research | Articles no citations in the text from January 2010 | All articles lacking in-text citations | All articles without source statements | Articles with statements without power in April 2008 About the Author

I am an expert from China Chemicals Products, usually analyzes all kind of industries situation, such as amber emergency lights , police emergency lighting.

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