M J Hummel Plates

M J Hummel Plates

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M J Hummel Plates

The taste and smell in cancer

Kitchen concept with cancer:

The taste and smell in cancer

Luis F. Pineda, MD, MSHA

The taste and smell in cancer

Introduction

With the aging process and aging, Cancer is and will remain a major health problem. One of the many, not least, however, crucial issues is the ability of patients to support Cancer normal diet.

The assumptions are that the cancer, a condition of abnormal behavior of cells, a catabolic state imposed on the individual.

The most recent documents by the technological development of the animal, which are capable of producing images of sites of cancer cells on the basis of the formation of radioactively labeled glucose, because hyperactive metabolism. If the person is unable to meet demand on the basis of the constitution or nutrient intake, and malnutrition and weight loss occurs. A possible participation of endogenous cytokines such as interleukins released or tumor necrosis factor.

In addition, methods of cancer treatment are now the causes of substantial changes in taste, smell and appetite for everything from psychological trauma, or neurochemical changes cytolytic inflammatory damage to the mouth, nose or gastrointestinal tract. Things are made worse by the treatment of cancer complications, including infection, nausea and vomiting.

palliative control procedures of pain, the use of narcotic analgesic drugs such as codeine, morphine and its analogs, which directly affect the nervous system central (limbic system) affect the function of gastrointestinal tract resulting in severe constipation, nausea and vomiting. Most of available literature addresses these issues culinary try to minimize the smell of preparation, temperature and color. For that, I mean, historically, eating white, cold, and the smell of food from hot red, and the smell of food. When the decoration and food coloring can now affect the taste and consumption and create appeal.

Most available studies addressing these issues Nutritional through nutrition involuntary drastic than total parenteral nutrition or TPN, through the digestive tube feeding infusion by nasogastric or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placed (PEG). All these are unattractive and costly interventions. Use of oral supplements high calorie desserts, bars, and reinforcements have failed despite their wide availability. This failure is due to intolerance patients mainly by the high carbohydrate, which makes the products too sweet.

appetite stimulants such as Marinol ® (tetrahydrocannabinol) or Megace ® (megastrol) have the disadvantage of causing changes in mental status and sedation. They are very expensive, or in the case of Megace, there is an inability to use in cases of hormone-dependent cancers (Eg prostate cancer – a very common cancer among adult men). There is also the possibility of blood clots, abnormal blood that she is older in cancer.

The management of taste alterations induced cancer should aim to maintain optimal nutrition (Brodie, 1998), but especially the quality life.

Flavor

The flavor is a complex mixture of sensory stimuli (Smith, 2001). Its components are gustation (taste), smell (Smell, perhaps more important than credited), and tactile (the mechanics of chewing). Traditionally describes the qualities of taste is acidity sweetness, bitterness and saltiness. Others may exist, especially Umami (Japanese translation of "delicious"). It is manufactured by glutamate, a flavor enhancer on the market such as monosodium glutamate or MSG. In 1908, Ikeda of Japan, he acknowledged that the chemical component of kombu seaweed soup tasting coffee. Umami This concept was developed by Chaudhari and Roper, University of Miami in 1998. Freely involving a substantial "taste, this concept is not yet widely accepted.

More recent research has documented the Umami receptors mediated glutamate receptors mGluR4 and denatonium mT2R8 receptors in the mouth, glutamate and cyclic AMP-linked through calcium channels. MSG is an enhancer of food that is very similar to the taste of common salt and significantly increases the sympathy of the food for at least 50% or more appropriate level culinary (Yamaguchi 1984). The main concern was the abdominal bloating and discomfort, sometimes associated. It is the fault of obesity among persons allergic reactions and sometimes East. However, significantly reduce the amount of sodium compared to normal salt (65% less) has a potentially large impact in the treatment of hypertension and may be a great advantage.

For years it was believed that the language was the source of the taste receptors, all located on a selective basis by geography and specificity (Ie on the sweetness and acidity at the end of the game).

The truth is that the whole mouth, and not just the language, has 72 receivers that are capable of respond to different stimuli, regardless of the quality and nature. One example is the beneficiary of salt after

diagram. Importance channels and the electrical nature of electrolytes transmission.

Recent studies have described specific receptors for the sensations taste and other research is continuing.

Taste buds, the receivers and drivers to respond to a particular sensation, but all the feelings, to some extent. Thus, the receptor response for the sweet taste, but particularly bitter sweet, sour, salty and less (Wickham 1999). The location of the receivers are the tongue, soft palate, glossopalatine bow and stern of the pharynx. Most receptors are located taste on the tongue. They are in the projection of papillae language gives them a velvety appearance. Several geographic areas of the language are identified. As shown, the tip is rich in mushrooms for the taste buds. The taste buds on the back of the tongue are flat circumvallates an inverted V's taste buds distributed the side of the tongue are leaves. The lack of taste receptors filiform, without providing tactile sensations. The concept of geographic tongue (sweet, hot, salty) no longer tenable and that each receptor is capable of processing more than one type of stimuli at the same time 73. They are unique to a particular taste, or are distributed geographically than previously thought.

The buds contain about 50-100 cells buds. They come in a way onion microvillous sifting through the opening at the top (taste pore). The vehicle for the taste of saliva (Schiffman, 1994). Flavoring, food or chemicals dissolved in saliva, the contact with the receptors through the pores, the chemical activation G protein (transducin and gustducin) receptors (ion channel) that are transformed into electrical impulses that are sent to the brain.

The process of depolarization activates the receptor. The interior and exterior of cells are in equilibrium constant power. In the case of taste receptors, which are negatively charged inside. The contact with the stimulating agent tends to neutralize or to the positive evolution of the interior. This creates a cascade electric current, which is transmitted through the line of nerves, so that releases a neurotransmitter chemical communication in the transmission of nerve cells another until it reaches its destination in the brain.

As the recipient, the line of nerve and relay points are electrically stations enabled end they are unable to respond to another stimulus (taste) until delivery, then again depolarized. This is called refraction or phase of recovery. Taste impulses are transmitted to the brain via cranial nerves V, VII, IX and X (Bender, 1999).

the chorda tympani (CT) is the main route of innervation of the tongue receivers above, while the receivers Taste of providing fitness structural and functional (McCluskey, 2002). surgical alteration of the tongue leads to loss of receptors sweet and salty. Mouth surgery can alter the acid and bitter receptors (Grant, 2000). The final recipient believes the parietal operculum near the fissure of Rolando, to now considered primarily located on the Island (2005 East).

The most probable is that there is a center of unique taste in the brain, but it is likely the electrical interaction of many brain regions that allows the construction of a global sensation.

Smell

Smell plays a very special place in the natural history of animals, especially mammals. Many of them are nocturnal and had to rely on olfactory orientation to detect food to avoid predators, to recognize the territories, social groups, and even sexual contacts (McGee, 1984).

The human olfactory region is about 16 square inches, compared to about 150 centimeters square dog. mixed S and taste can be separated. "The smell and taste form a single meaning, that the mouth is the laboratory and the nose is chimney. To be more precise, one of which is in the tasting of actual bodies and the other to sample its gas "(Brillat-Savarin 1994).

Little has been known to smell until recent years. Researchers have discovered two important Nobel Physiology and Medicine (Linda Buck and Richard Axel 2004) by defining the olfactory receptor protein, as shown.

This system is still depends on receptor activation, transmission of electrical impulses through the cyclic AMP (amino monophosphate), and the exchange interaction power exchange with sodium.

Often misunderstood, the act of smell does not occur exclusively by the inhalation of aromas through the nose, but rather by an action pheromontal. The combined mixture of saliva, the product, and evaporation from the back of the nose through the soft palate at the back and activates the receptor of smell.

The human nose depends on the proper functioning of cranial nerves I or the olfactory nerve, the sensation of odor quality, as the smell of roses, or lemon grass and ophthalmic and maxillary portions of cranial nerve V trigeminal somatic sensory nuances of smells, such as heat, cold, dry and irritation.

The olfactory neuroepithelium is located on the cribriform plate, superior septum and a segment of the upper concha and is rich in olfactory receptors.

As in the case of taste, smell and attach it to dissolve in the mucus layer covering the contact for recipients (Doty RL Bromley, SM, 1997). The taste, smell and other pulses make their way through the nerve conduction in the brain where the final decision of the pulses are coded in the overall perception.

Thermal and mechanical receptors

Other recipients of lesser importance are:

• Mechanics: Touch detection texture (crunchy, soft, hard,

dry, wet)

• temperature thermal sensation

All this is assistance of chewing, mechanical disintegration of the bolus into smaller particles can be mixed with saliva and conductive particles in contact with taste receptors to through liquids or gases through the odor receptors (pheromontal). The process of mastication reduces particle size to swallow the saliva mixed engage together in a bowl safely. This mixture of food for better exposure to digestive enzymes.

More people chew a twenty times before swallowing, however, in normal circumstances, the better the chewing of food higher as a source of pleasure. The time slower and chew, the possibility of odoriferous substances which are unstable molecules to travel to the odor receptors through to the back of the mouth. This question is relevant to the gum industry.

Enhancers

The peppers are used in many cultures as an enhancer flavor. Capsaicin, the active ingredient in peppers, increases blood flow in the mouth and VRI receptor activates a membrane channel protein, calcium exchanges within and outside the cells. Capsaicin has four different subunits, which are in different sites of the mouth, for the different effects on the taste for different kinds of peppers. be soluble in fat and improves taste sensitive to heat for fatty foods. Peppers are less flavor. Its physiological function is based on three principles.

• inducer overwhelming supply blood to the mouth (please

note to self what happens when exposed to a minimal amount of

peppers in the mouth) that causes an increased production of saliva,

vehicle for the distribution of elements of taste in the mouth and

rapid heartbeat to an increase in bronchial secretions and indices

sweating (cooling effect).

• Are depolarizing electrical charges to smell and taste

receptors.

• There is a direct stimulus of the brain by the sensory pathways of pain.

This is done by reducing the availability of substance P and

increased levels of prostaglandins, essential elements of

human inflammatory response.

All these brain capacityy improve taste and smell. Thismakes the act of eating more enjoyable.

Well known other cultures such as Latin America (jalapeno, ancho), India (sanaam, dundicut) and China (Tien Tsin Pepper), the use of chilies is a part intrinsic cultures.

green peppers, native to Latin America, were used by Maya Incas and Aztecs. chili were brought to the Old World by Christopher Columbus as a substitute for the most popular peppers. Adverse drug from the start by former Maya. Chillatolli prepared corn flour mixed with chili, all kinds of respiratory diseases. The Aztecs used the direct result of pain management pain of teeth. Tucano Indians in Colombia is used to treat the hangover and the Mayans and Aztecs as the control of wound infections open.

The hypothesis peppers are a chemical substance against cancer is less important. They are also well known as a controller of pain and widely used in the United States of America as a medicine against arthritis localized. Peppers are not just "hot", they are used as flavor enhancers, such as paprika.

They are classified in the intensity of heat as the system Scoville unit Thermal (Wilbur L. Scoville 1912). This scale is evaluated so that the man then this is subjective and prone to human error. The scale establishes acrimony by dilution test. In essence, try to document the number of times dilution in a neutral liquid in which a normal human being can not detect the bite. Most scientists is a high performance liquid chromatography to extract chemicals and measures of capsaicinoids.

Scale units Scoville

The following is a list of chiles, put on a scale to show relative levels of spice and Scoville heat units .*

Name the type species Pod Scoville Units

Habanero Orange Habanero C. chinense 210000

Habanero Red Habanero C. chinense 150000

Tabasco Tabasco C. frutescens 120,000

75,000 Tepin Tepin C annuum

Chiltepin Tepin C. annuum 70,000

A Healthy Thailand Hot C. annuum 60,000

M C. Jalapeño Jalapeño annuum 25,000

Long Slim Cayenne Cayenne C. annuum 23,000

Mitla C annuum Jalapeno 22000

Santa Fe Grande Hungarian C. annuum 21,000

A marinade ji C. Pepper baccatum 17,000

Long and thick

Cayenne C. annuum 8500

Cayenne C. annuum 8000

Pasilla Pasilla C. annuum 5500

C. Jalapeño Spring annuum 5000

N ew Mexico Sandia C. annuum 5000

Joe E. N ew Mexico Numex C. Parker annuum 4500

Serrano C. 4000 S error annuum

Mulato A ncho C. annuum 1000

Bell Bell C. annuum 0

Capsaicin

chemical structure of the ingredient most widely recognized chemically active in the chili. Contrary to popular belief, the heat is not found in seeds, but in the placenta, which are pouches located in the inner wall of the fruit. When you open the fruit seeds tend to splash and are very fragile and break easily. Capsaicin binds directly to receptors on the taste, but can be detached from casein, a protein obtained from milk, beans, nuts and chocolate, which is used as moderator of spice.

To date, there are fourteen different namedcapsaicinoids capsaicin. Everyone has a property unique and distinctive nature of the bite, the location in the mouth that is activated and the duration of action.

• Nordyhydrocapsaicin gives effect gentle warming, fast

and outside, especially at the front of the mouth and palate.

• In comparison, dihydrocapsaicin is more powerful and affects the

through the mouth and palate.

• Homohydrocapsaicin is an irritant, treble, with a slow start

but a longer duration in the throat and back of the tongue.

Similarly, heating of the tip of the tongue produces a sweet taste

during cooling induces a feeling sour.

The taste and smell of behavior

more taste and preferences aversions are learned. There is an innate taste for sweetness may be associated with frequent consumption of fruit and an aversion to the bitterness that is often associated with toxic alkaloids and bitter. social mores, opportunities and private associations with good times and painful printed childhood. This has been experimentally illustrated in the studies are available, as the case of Pavlov and his experiments with dogs. There are repeated reports Food "cravings" rich in electrolytes or essential nutrition. For example, water and salt in dehydration, water and carbohydrates in diabetes mellitus and pregnancy cravings.

Preabsorptive satiety refers to the time where a sense of accomplishment to eat arises. Several mechanisms 82 associated believe this biochemistry of the real satisfaction of needs can not be corroborated, if the pressure receptors in the lining of the stomach, the chemical receptors in the intestinal wall, or downgraded by affinity for glucose Tasting blood was located (although it could be replaced by cultural pressures, obesity eg the U.S.). We do not know why someone becomesfull after a meal or why a certain level of consumption of food becomes repulsive desired when taken excess.

Pathophysiology

The life of a taste cell is ten days. Because of this rapid proliferation, they become very sensitive to cell death during chemotherapy (Strohl, 1984). In patients with cancer in general, not a higher threshold taste following a decrease in the number of taste buds (Stubbs 1989)

Cytokines are proteins produced by the body. They influence cell behavior by inducing specific cellular functions. Cancer raises their production (interleukins, tumor necrosis factor).

They known to lower the threshold of bitterness (Davidson 1998).

The head and neck radiation therapy are known to cause taste disturbances initially 20Gy (unit of measurement of radiation) experienced a change of taste. This increase of 50% at 30Gy and 60Gy becomes permanent (Madey 1996). Influence directly reduces the number of taste buds and damage the microvilli of the 83 cells. This affects initially bitter and salty sensations and more later to a lesser extent, taste sweet (Mossman K.1978).

The chemotherapy, however, lowers the threshold of taste bitter and sweet taste increases for (Madey 1996). Many patients complain of a metallic taste. The principal officers are delinquent nitrogen mustard, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. side effects of chemotherapy has been known repeatedly to become an undesired behavior by the patient according to the mechanism Pavlov (Bender, 1999).

Chemotherapy damages:

Mucositis

Damage caused by infections:

Zoster infection

The damage caused by radiation therapy:

Osteonecrosis

Is there a difference? Beyond the issue of quality of life and the pure pleasure of eating, nutrition make a difference? For most people, including medical or novice, the Yes. Usually This question is not primarily a time and priority is the second or third level of nutritional significance.

Material Reflection:

• The basic principles are misunderstood importance.

Positron emission tomography • (PET) Update the technological tool in oncology, especially cell depends on the use of glucose by cancer cells.

• In 1998, a double-blind, randomized study with a small sample, showed that administration of zinc sulfate three to four times per day restored, not only taste acuity, but also slow the degradation of taste and taste buds of abnormal anatomy (Ripamonti, 1998).

• Monosodium glutamate, commonly used in oriental cooking, becomes a good candidate as a flavor enhancer, "not only for its salty taste, but stimulates the umami, the taste last survey, resulting in the release of glucagon and insulin (East 2005).

Alcohol and Health

The relationship between alcohol and health has been long and controversial. For years, medical schools have taught Students of serious adverse effects, including alcoholism and its social and physical consequences, such as cirrhosis of the liver, and fetal alcohol syndrome.

For moderate drinkers, are indications lower mortality rate of 16% to 28% seen in non-drinkers (Boffetta, Fuchs). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism has introduced a greater longevity to the consumption of a or two drinks per day (Ellison, 1993). A drink is defined as a drink five ounces of wine, one ounce of hard liquor or beer can.

Effect more protective for cardiovascular and circulatory systems, increasing the level of HDL (high density lipoprotein) or good cholesterol, reducing thrombosis, reduced fibrinogen, increased fibrinolysis and reduction of arterial spasm during stress (Paassilta 1998).

moderate alcohol consumers suffer fewer heart attacks and arteriosclerosis. They have a lower risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (Mukamal 2003), and there is a lower incidence for the metabolic syndrome (Matthew, 2004). They all seem related to the presence resveratrol, a phytoalexin chemical in the skin of red grapes used in the production of red wines.

For our purposes, the alcohol seems to have a well to improve appetite and taste, curiously, by improving the sense of smell.

Food Chemistry

What that people in good health:

• The taste of fat (the concept of demand)

• The taste of sugar (caramelized concept)

Recommendations:

• As described a metallic taste, use plastic utensils

(Stubbs 1989).

• Patients should eat frequent small meals throughout

day (Sherry 2002).

• chilled or frozen are more acceptable than hot food

(Brodie, 1998).

• Boca attention is crucial (Sherry 2002).

• Provide a rapid change of taste:

1. By promoting activities receptors (pepper).

2. For the cleaning of recipients

a. (Ginger / vinegar)

3. Using sauces nature of grout

(For fruit salsa fat free)

• Parties should be small.

• The presentation must be simple and colorful.

• Drink a glass of red wine before a meal. (Alcoholic beverages

are used as an appetite stimulant.)

Resignation

This work is not for a scientific presentation to the extent a compilation of information and ideas in an attempt to improve the quality and perhaps the amount of the life of cancer patients.

The hope is to provide a simple quality, superlative, and a better life for cancer patients.

Statement

My research on taste and smell in patients with cancer have been made with the help God and the patients for whom it is dedicated this manuscript and intended.

http://www.cookingwithcancer.org

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M J Hummel Plates

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